RUST – A new Systems Programming Language

Rust is a systems programming language that runs fast, prevents faults, and guarantees thread safety. The system level work refers to memory management, data representation and concurrency.

Rust is a new language relative to its predecessors and considered similar to C Language. The features of this language has created an advantage over C Language. If we look at the trends of the current industry, this language is emerging as one of the most loved language by the developers.

Programmers who are involved in lower-level control programming, can do so with Rust, without taking on the customary risk of crashes or security holes, and besides that it is designed to guide us naturally towards reliable code that is efficient in terms of speed and memory usage.

This language is not limited to Low Level Programming but it is expressive and ergonomic enough to make CLI apps, web servers, and many other kinds of code.

How Rust can help?

Low level code is prone to many bugs which are basically caught when tested regressively and code review done by experienced ones. Rust compiler checks these type of bugs at compile time only, which help the team to focus on other pending tasks. It is useful for those who want to learn the system level concepts. Rust can be used in production for a variety of tasks like Command line tools, web services, DevOps tooling, embedded devices, audio and video analysis and transcoding, cryptocurrencies, bioinformatics, search engines, Internet of Things applications, machine learning and many more.

Advantages of using Rust over C/C++

  • High-level abstractions, which are extremely important to the nature of Rust.
  • A proper type system, Rust uses a Hindley–Milner like type system with type inference. This type system makes it possible to generalize many primitives without a lot of pain.
  • Rust has a custom type inference system (called the “Diamond rule”), where the compiler tries to find a set of types satisfying the bounds requested.
  • No exceptions, while Rust does have unwinding by default, it does not have exceptions, in the normal sense. Rust does error handling through algebraic data types: commonly the tagged union, Result.
  • Automatic frees, Rust automatically calls the Destructors of all the values, which are not moved, when they go out of scope.
  • No race conditions. Race conditions is a major pain point in most languages. Rust solves this smartly on compile time: namely that it constraints certain things to Send/Sync bound.

Installing Rust

Rust Versions and its associated tools are managed by rustup, commmand line tool.

On Linux and macOS

$ curl https://sh.rustup.rs -sSf | sh

On Windows

On Windows, go to https://www.rust-lang.org/install.html and follow the instructions for installing Rust. C++ Build Tools will also be required prior to this installation.

If you have Rust already installed, then you can use the following command to update.

$ rustup update

To uninstall Rust and rustup, run the following uninstall script from your shell:

$ rustup self uninstall

Writing and Running First Program

Now make a new source file and call it main.rs. Rust files always end with the .rs extension.

fn main() {
         println!("Hello, world!");
}

On Linux or macOS, enter the following commands to compile and run the file:

$ rustc main.rs
$ ./main
Hello, world!

On Windows, enter the command .\main.exe instead of ./main:

rustc main.rs
 .\main.exe
Hello, world!

The above lines of sample program denotes the main function that runs in every executable program.

Second, println! calls a Rust macro. If it called a function instead, it would be entered as println. Using a ! means that we are calling a macro instead of a normal function.

Before running a Rust program, we must compile it using the Rust compiler by using the below command line.

$ rustc main.rs

This all looks similar to C/C++ compilers gcc and clang.

So here we have introduced the Rust Language and how to Get Started with.

Keep reading for more tutorials on Rust

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